How Do They Make Colors
If we are talking about the colors used in printing and drawing. Well, in this case, colors are made by either pigments or dyes on top of a substrate (the paper, or the canvas). These compounds (“chemicals”) absorb some of the visible wavelengths of light and either reflect, scatter, or transmit the rest. Under normal conditions the color you see depends on exactly which combination of wavelengths make it back to your eye.
The majority of natural dyes are derived from plant sources: roots, berries, bark, leaves, wood, fungi and lichens. In the 21st century, most dyes are synthetic, i.e., are man-made from petrochemicals. Other than pigmentation, they have a range of applications including organic dye lasers, optical media (CD-R) and camera sensors (color filter array).
There is at least 9 ways of creating coloring substences (Safranin, Eosin, Basic Fuchsin, Acid Fuchsin, Crystal violet, Congo Red, Methylene Blue)
Paint is made of pigments (unsoluble colored grains) or dyes (soluble colorants) + binder(s) keeping the particles or sulution together + solvent(s) making the paint more liquid and easy to spread + additives like hardeners that help the paint set and dry to a hard film on the surface that it’s applied to. Because pigments are usually the most expensive ingredient, cheaper paints usually also have quite a lot of fillers or extenders that make it possible to make more paint with a lower amount of pigments and still look the part.